How to install Apache Maven on Debian 9

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Apache Maven is a java based software for project management and comprehension tool developed by Apache Foundation. Based on the concept of a project object model (POM), Maven can manage an entire project’s build. With Maven you can easily store documents, generate reports and documentation from a central piece of information. Installing Maven on Debian 9, is fairly easy task if you follow the steps bellow carefully and should not take more then 10 minutes.
– Consistent usage across all projects
– Simple project setup that follows best practices
– Transitive dependencies
– Ability to Work with multiple projects at the same time
– Ability to write plugins in Java and other languages
– Coherent site of project information


– Debian 9 system
– SSH access to the Debian system with root privileges.
– Java installed on the server

Update the system

First of all, login to your Debian 9 system via SSH as user root

ssh root@IP_Address -p Port_Number

You should always update your services, scripts and applications to the latest version, so make sure that all installed packages are up to date

apt update && apt upgrade

Install Maven from repository

Maven can be easily installed from the offcial Debian 9 repositories. To check the version of Apache Maven available in the repositories execute the following command

apt-cache show maven | grep -i version
Version: 3.3.9-4

Run the following command to proceed with the installation of Apache Maven version 3.3.9

apt install maven

This will install Apache Maven, Java and all necessary dependencies on your Debian 9 system.

Check the installed Maven Version

mvn --version


Apache Maven 3.3.9
Maven home: /usr/share/maven
Java version: 1.8.0_171, vendor: Oracle Corporation
Java home: /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64/jre
Default locale: en_US, platform encoding: ANSI_X3.4-1968
OS name: "linux", arch: "amd64", family: "unix"

Install and configure Maven from source

If you need a more recent version than the one we installed from the official Debian repositories, we will have to instlal Apache Maven manually from source. If you install Maven from source Java will be not automatically installed. As we previously mentioned, Apache Maven is java based tool Java and the major prerequisite is Java, so we have to run the following commands to install Java to your Debian 9 system

apt install default-jdk

Confirm that Java is properly installed

java -version


openjdk version "1.8.0_171"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_171-8u171-b11-1~deb9u1-b11)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.171-b11, mixed mode)

Install and configure Maven from source

Now, once we verified the Java is properly installed on the server, we can proceed with the installation of Maven. Download the latest version of Apache Maven directly from the their website. At the moment of writing this article the latest version is 3.5.3.

cd /opt

Extract the downloaded distribution archive to a directory of your choice. We will extract it to the current working directory

unzip apache-maven-3.5.3

Set the necessary environment variables by creating new file with the following content

nano /etc/profile.d/

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/default-java
export M2_HOME=/opt/apache-maven-3.5.3
export MAVEN_HOME=/opt/apache-maven-3.5.3
export PATH=${M2_HOME}/bin:${PATH}

Ensure that all paths are properly set, save the file and run the following command to load the environment variables

source /etc/profile.d/

Run the following command the check the installed version of Maven

mvn --version

You should get the following output

Apache Maven 3.5.3 (3383c37e1f9e9b3bc3df5050c29c8aff9f295297; 2018-02-24T13:49:05-06:00)
Maven home: /opt/apache-maven-3.5.3
Java version: 1.8.0_171, vendor: Oracle Corporation
Java home: /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64/jre
Default locale: en_US, platform encoding: ANSI_X3.4-1968
OS name: "linux", arch: "amd64", family: "unix"

Depending on your setup, you may need extra configuration. Check out Maven’s official configuration guide for details if necessary.

With this step Apache Maven is successfully installed on your Debian 9 system and you can start creating your projects.

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